Early Jewish and Christian Mysticism Sessions at SBL 2009

Please try to make these sessions. All of them should be terrific. Our sessions are usually very productive and informative. I am posting here the information from the program book which includes the room numbers.

The first session includes a book review of Christopher Rowland's and Christopher Murray-Jones' long-awaited book on New Testament Mysticism.
Early Jewish and Christian Mysticism
1:00 PM to 3:30 PM
Room: Napoleon D3 - SH
Reviews of Christopher Rowland and Christopher Morray-Jones’ book, The Mystery of God: Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (Brill, 2009), and responses by the authors.Silviu Bunta, University of Dayton, Presiding
Alan Segal, Columbia University, Panelist (10 min)
Kevin Sullivan, Illinois Wesleyan University, Panelist (10 min)
Charles A. Gieschen, Concordia Theological Seminary - Fort Wayne, Panelist (10 min)
James R. Davila, University of St. Andrews, Panelist (10 min)
Christopher Morray-Jones, California, Respondent (15 min)
Discussion (20 min)
Break (15 min)
Elizabeth Morton, McGill University
The Role of Ecstasy in the Formation of Abraham, the Sage (25 min)
Dragos-Andrei Giulea, Marquette University
The Noetic Turn in Jewish-Christian Mysticism: Revisiting Esoterism, Mysticism, and Internalization with Philo, Clement, and Origen (25 min)
Discussion (10 min)
The second is on second-century mysticism in Christian sources. I'm going to be talking about my next project which is mapping the initiatory rites of the Gnostics (lots of astrology here). Grant Adamson and Franklin Trammell are my graduate students. Adamson will be presenting an important paper on the Gospel of Judas and horoscopes. Trammell will be talking about Hermas' view of the church as the androgynous body of God. Jonathan Draper will be discussing the Ascension of Isaiah.
Early Jewish and Christian Mysticism
4:00 PM to 6:30 PM
Room: Balcony J - MR

Theme: Second-Century Christian Mysticism and Gnosticism

Kevin Sullivan, Illinois Wesleyan University, Presiding
April D. Deconick, Rice University
Star Gates and Heavenly Places: What Were the Gnostics Doing? (25 min)
Grant Adamson, Rice University
Fate Indelible: The Gospel of Judas as Horoscope (25 min)
Discussion (15 min)
Break (15 min)
Franklin Trammell, Rice University
The Tower as Divine Body: Visions and Theurgy in the Shepherd of Hermas (25 min)
Jonathan Knight, Katie Wheeler Research Trust/York St John University, UK
The use of Jewish and other Mystical Traditions in the Ascension of Isaiah (25 min)
Discussion (20 min)
The third session is on mysticism in early Judaism. I am not as familiar with the presenters and papers, except my colleague and friend Rebecca Lesses, and anything she is discussing is well worth hearing!
Early Jewish and Christian Mysticism
4:00 PM to 6:30 PM
Room: Southdown Room - SH

Theme: Mysticism in Early Judaism

Silviu N. Bunta, University of Dayton, Presiding
Matthew J. Grey, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Joseph and Aseneth, Hekhalot Mysticism, and the “Parting of the Ways” between Christianity and Judaism in Late Antiquity (25 min)
Rebecca Lesses, Ithaca College
Female Jewish mystics in late antiquity: real women or literary construction? (25 min)
Discussion (15 min)
Break (15 min)
R. Jackson Painter, Simpson University
Mystical Identification with Christ in the Odes of Solomon (25 min)
David Larsen, Marquette University
And He Departed from the Throne: The Enthronement of Moses in Place of the Noble Man in Exagoge of Ezekiel the Tragedian (25 min)
Discussion (20 min)

Aeon Byte Interview

Miguel Connor of Aeon Byte interviewed me recently about the Gospel of John and the Gospel of Thomas. He has a website where downloads are available HERE. If you scroll down, you will find at the bottom a menu of all his shows and his many guests. This is quite a resource that Mr. Connor has put together over the years! His website contains downloads of shows featuring a variety of well-known scholars discussing their ideas about the ancient world on everything from Hermetism to Gnosticism to Mysticism. Thank you Miguel for caring so much about esotericism in the ancient world, making these interviews available to all.

The Kingdom within

Peter Head commented on my last post: "April, the picture contradicts the text. The picture represents the Kingdom of Heaven (the heavenly temple) as something outside of "man"; with the stream of living water coming not from within but from without - from the Lamb and God on the throne."

That was my point. I set these side-by-side with the hope that my readers would consider the differences and become curious about this.

In many esoteric traditions from the late first century onwards, apocalyptic expectations such as the coming of the Kingdom of Heaven as heavenly Jerusalem at the end of time ruled by the Lamb of God, become "interiorized". I understand this to be largely the result of the No-Event - that the end did not come, and didn't look like it was coming. So people in more esoterically-oriented churches and communities began to focus on bringing about the fruits and promises of the apocalypse in the present moment. They understood the Kingdom as an internal experience, their bodies as already transformed into angels, the Lamb or Man enthroned within them, and so forth. This is a phenomenon I am very interested to study, and have been tracking for some time now, and wrote extensively about in my books on the Gospel of Thomas.

Film production for Erotic Mysticism Documentary

Yesterday I had the pleasure of interviewing with Zeke Mazur who is going around interviewing scholars and practicioners of mysticism in order to put together a documentary on erotic mysticism. So I got to talk all afternoon to a captivated audience about one of my favorite subjects - the Valentinians and sacred marriage. You can find information about Zeke's film HERE <<<

Zeke, who is a Plotinian graduate student at University of Chicago, also has a personal webpage HERE <<<

Gnosis and sacred marriage is also the subject of one of the chapters I am planning to write for my Sex and the Serpent in Ancient Christianity: Why the Sexual Conflicts of the Early Church Still Matter. By the way, I have now finished two chapters of this book (Chapter 1: Where did the Mother God Go?; Chapter 2: Why was the Spirit Neutered?). I am going to start writing the third chapter this week: Chapter 3: Is Sex a Sin? - all about Jesus and Paul on this subject).

Why speciality units at SBL are important

My ruminations here represent a continued reflection about SBL and the importance of the formation of specialized groups. I remember years ago how difficult it was to get permission from the SBL Powers to form new groups. There was a policy to keep the number of groups limited, and to encourage scholars to work out their research agendas within already established groups.

I recall the meeting at the University of Michigan on Vision and Audition in 1995 when I proposed to the scholars present that we form the Early Jewish and Christian Mysticism unit. I distinctly remember one of the scholars present shaking his head and admonishing us that our unit would never be approved because the SBL was not allowing for the expansion of its number of units. I'm one of those people that take such advise as a challenge, so we went ahead with the proposal anyway. Of the couple new units approved that year, we made the cut.

Why did I suggest that we form this group? The main reason was that the academy had no units studying mystical traditions or religious experience. So when my colleagues and I tried to present papers in other groups, our work was tangential and even marginalized in those sessions. The audience had come to hear about a particular text or set of texts - be it the Dead Sea Scrolls, or Rabbinic literature, or Nag Hammadi literature, or Thomas traditions, or Pseudepigrapha - and when we would try to engage them in a conversation about mystical traditions within this literature, it wasn't particularly productive because it wasn't their issue or interest.

But once we formed a space for the discussion of the mystical to occur, wow, did things happen. I think our unit, in terms of publishing books connected to our unit, is one of the most productive. I can list at least twenty books that have roots in our group, and these books are published in excellent scholarly series put out by Brill, Mohr-Siebeck, T & T Clark, SUNY, etc.

And what spins off should be noted too. From the Early Jewish and Christian Mysticism group has been the creation of the Religious Experience in Antiquity unit, and the New Testament Mysticism Project Seminar - more spaces for more scholars to explore connected but more specialized interests or research projects (as is the case with the New Testament Mysticism commentary). It is the snowball effect, and it is what vitalizes everything that our generation of scholars will produce.

These smaller specialized units allow a space for graduate students to be welcomed into the academy, to be supported as they look for jobs, as they begin writing for journals, and publishing their first book.

But complete specialization and separateness is not what I'm talking about. It is important to stay connected to the discourse of other groups. So the ability to do joint sessions on a common topic of interest is exceedingly vital. We try to put together a joint session at least every other year, to stay in touch with bigger issues and alternative methods.

This is what I mean when I say that SBL is a communal experience for me. And I can't imagine it being that way without the presence of the Early Jewish and Christian Mysticism group to which I owe more than words can express. I just can't emphasize enough how these units can become your family, your home away from home. The people that I have met and worked with in these units have become very dear to me. I can't imagine a SBL meeting without this special space for us and our work. Or our Saturday night dinners, which is always a highlight of my meeting.

So I am SO GLAD that the SBL Powers have changed their minds and policy on new groups, allowing the growth to occur and supporting this as much as possible. I don't worry one bit about "over-specializing" - this isn't even a word in my vocabulary. What we are about is enlivening biblical studies, making it an exciting field for a new generation of scholarship. To do this successfully requires scholars to have the freedom to work on collective projects, to create units that support minority positions or interests as well as the dominant.

With more units, it means that we are going to miss things that we would like to have been part of. But when hasn't this been the case? It also means that the committees have to provide an agenda that the group wants to participate in. But this is what we want anyway - programming that is connected to the scholarship happening on the ground.

This means, though, that we are never going to have our agendas set two years in advance as the SBL Powers are insisting - because who knows what fabulous things we are all going to be doing then (smile!).

Book Honoring Alan Segal and Larry Hurtado

I couldn't mention this book before because it was a surprise reveal at SBL. But I helped edit a book honoring the scholarship and friendship of Alan Segal and Larry Hurtado. We have called it Israel's God and Rebecca's Children: Christology and Community in Early Judaism and Christianity (published by Baylor Press). The book is very integrated, very much like a conference volume with cutting edge papers.

I don't have the book here at home, so if I miss an author is is due to my memory failure and nothing else. Contributors include Fredrikson, Adela Collins, Bauckham, Dunn, Epp, Thompson, Bond, Foster, Casey, Miller, Newman, Gieschen, Levison, Klawans, Elior, Fitzgerald, Perkins, Capes, DeConick. And we had Alan and Larry contribute pieces for each other, telling them that the book was for the other person!

So this is the book I was working on all summer with David Capes. Since we are both in Houston, we worked in my office on the book, bringing it together just in time to be printed for the final joint AAR/SBL meeting. We had a surprise reception at Lou and Mickey's across the street from the convention center. Alan and Larry were completely surprised and delighted with the book. Carey Newman brought the project to reality, and we are all very thankful to him. The book is gorgeous.

Beyond the Beyond: A Wolfson Conference

This is an update and reminder that Rice is hosting a conference on October 26, 9:30 a.m.-5:30 p.m., Kyle Morrow Room, Fondren Library, Rice University.

On the Visual Imagination and Mystical Hermeneutics of Elliot R. Wolfson

Bringing together a panel of distinguished scholars, this symposium will take Elliot R. Wolfson's groundbreaking writings on Jewish mysticism and his related paintings and poetry as points of departure for lectures focused on the reenvisioning of embodiment, time, beauty, ritual practice, angelic presence, and issues of transgression, law and honesty.

Daniel Boyarin, University of California, Berkley
Marcia Brennan, Rice University
Virginia Burrus, Drew University
April D. DeConick, Rice University
Gregory Kaplan, Rice University
Jeffrey J. Kripal, Rice University
Steven M. Wasserstrom, Reed College
Elliot R. Wolfson, New York University
Edith Wyschogrod, Rice University

The Humanities Research Center at Rice University, The Stanford and Joan Alexander Foundation, and the Religious Studies Department at Rice University.

I don't know what other lecturers are doing, but I will be speaking about the Gospel of Judas as a subversive ancient Gnostic gospel, one that transgresses the mainstream in terms of hermeneutics and visual imagination in order to challenge and critic the mainstream. I will also address how this text has been received by scholars in the modern world, and how its transgressive message has been subverted and buried through modern translation and interpretation.

My still tentative title (since I still have to sit down and write this lecture yet):
The Gospel of Judas and Subversion in Antiquity and Today

Please join us for part or all of the conference if you can!

Book Note: From Apocalypticism to Merkavah Mysticism (Andrei Orlov)

If you are interested in early Jewish mysticism and haven't seen this spectacular book yet, you should take a look even if it is at the library. It is a Brill volume, and a hefty one at that (483 pages). It is every bit as good as Orlov's first, The Metatron Enoch Tradition (Mohr Siebeck, 2005).

From Apocalypticism to Merkavah Mysticism
is a collection of previously published essays from Orlov's pen that examine Slavonic pseudepigrapha (2 Enoch, Apocalypse of Adam, Ladder of Jacob, 3 Baruch) in terms of their importance for the development of theophanic and angelological imagery crucial to early Jewish mysticism. He examines the traditions of exalted patriarchs: Enoch, Adam, Noah, Jacob, and Moses. These texts are normally not touched by scholars of Jewish mysticism, most likely because of the language barrier - how many knew or know Slavonic? So Orlov, whose scholarly love is mysticism, has overcome that barrier and brings his extensive knowledge of the mystical traditions into his analyses of the Slavonic materials.

But that is not all. If you are looking for a comprehensive bibliography on the Slavonic pseudepigrapha, you will find it here. It occupies the entire first part of Orlov's book, the first 100 pages.

Conference honoring Elliot Wolfson

At the end of October there is being planned a conference to honor Elliot Wolfson. Wolfson received an external faculty grant from the Rice Humanities Research Center to come to Rice this semester and teach a course on Jewish mysticism.

A symposium is being orchestrated to celebrate his work. It is called, "Venturing Beyond the Beyond: A Symposium on the Aesthetics and Hermeneutics of Elliot R. Wolfson." When and where? Friday, October 26-27, in the Kyle Morrow Room at Fondren Library.

I have submitted a presentation called, "'We have been sent out of the world': Gnosis and Religious Experience in Valentinian Christianity." Inspired by Wolfson's most recent article, "Inscribed in the book of the living," (JSJ 38: 2007, 234-271), the focus of this lecture will be understanding Gnosis as experiential, with particular attention paid to its liturgical and ritual aspects.

I will keep you posted in terms of all the speakers and times as those are put together by Marcia Brennan and Jeffrey Kripal, the symposium's hosts.

2007 SBL Sessions to Hightlight 2: Early Jewish and Christian Mysticism

This is the first year for the new 10-year project of the Early Jewish and Christian Mysticism Group: mapping possible provenances of mysticism in early Judaism and Christianity. The group is also meeting jointly with the Religious Experience unit, reviewing several significant books that have been published recently by members of EJCM.

There is a website for EJCM here.

Early Jewish and Christian Mysticism
1:00 PM to 3:30 PM
Room: Columbia 1 - MM

Theme: Possible Provenances for Mysticism: Ancient Near East and Hebrew Bible

Kevin Sullivan, Illinois Wesleyan University, Presiding
Silviu N. Bunta, Marquette University
Sitting in Heaven: An Ancient Near Eastern Pre-Merkabah Reading of Ezekiel 1 (30 min)
Kelley N. Coblentz Bautch, St. Edward's University
Ezekiel as Precursor to the Divine Vision in Merkavah and Hekhalot Literature (30 min)
Break (15 min)
John J. Collins, Yale University
Ascent to Heaven in the Dead Sea Scrolls? (30 min)
Daphna Arbel, University of British Columbia
Crown, Name, Robe, and Throne (30 min)
Discussion (15 min)

Early Jewish and Christian Mysticism
Joint Session With: Early Jewish and Christian Mysticism, Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Early Christianity
9:00 AM to 11:30 AM
Room: Edward B - GH

Theme: Joint Book Review Session

Kevin Sullivan, Illinois Wesleyan University
Review of Andrei Orlov,From Apocalypse to Merkavah Mysticism: Studies in the Slavonic Pseudepigrapha (Brill, 2006) (15 min)
Andrei Orlov, Marquette University
Response (15 min)
Catherine Playoust, Independent Scholar
Review of Frances Flannery Dailey, Dreamers, Scribes, And Priests: Jewish Dreams In The Hellenistic And Roman Eras (Brill, 2004) (15 min)
Frances Flannery-Dailey, James Madison University
Response (15 min)
Break (15 min)
Silviu N. Bunta, Marquette University
Review of Kelley Coblentz Bautch, A Study of the Geography of 1 Enoch 17-19: No One Has Seen What I Have Seen, (Brill, 2003) (15 min)
Kelley N. Coblentz Bautch, St. Edward's University
Response (15 min)
James D. Tabor, University of North Carolina at Charlotte
Review of Jane D. Schaberg, Resurrection Of Mary Magdalene: Legends, Apocrypha, And The Christian Testament (Continuum, 2004) (15 min)
Jane D. Schaberg, University of Detroit Mercy
Respose (15 min)
Discussion (15 min)

Early Jewish and Christian Mysticism Web page and San Diego Agenda

I have just added to my website a new page describing the Early Jewish and Christian Mysticism group. It is a Society of Biblical Literature Section that meets annually at the SBL convention. Sessions are open to anyone who is interested in the subject, and we have an open call for paper proposals every year. I will keep this page as a permanent fixture on my website, and update it with new information, including information about future meetings and agendas.

I have just posted on the web page the schedule for the San Diego sessions. Kevin Sullivan has done a terrific job bringing together a number of excellent scholars in a book review session and a session devoted to the discussion of our first "Mystical Provenance" - the Ancient Near East.

What is happening in the field of Jewish and Christian Mysticism? and Article Note: "Communion with the Angels" by Peter Schäfer

Peter Schäfer just sent me an offprint of one of his most recent publications, an article published in his edited conference volume: Wege mystischer Gotteserfahrung: Judentum, Christentum und Islam = Mystical approaches to God : Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (München: Oldenbourg, 2006) pp. 37-66. I want to highlight this particular article because in it Schäfer grapples with Qumran, a Jewish community with literature and liturgies filled with mystical practices. In this piece, he does not argue for or against religious experience, but appears to me to be taking very seriously the plethora of references to religious practices in this corpus. Schäfer, in this article, discusses the Qumran literature from the perspective of a community which conceived of itself as a community of priests, who lived in absolute cultic purity and believed themselves to be united with the angels. Sometimes this unity is had through liturgical communion (such as in the Hodayot and related texts) - the sectarians join with the praise of the angels in heaven.

He thinks, however, that the Qumran literature cannot be understood as the hidden source of what is later Merkavah or Hekhalot mysticism, because the Qumran literature should not be read in terms of ascent through the seven heavens, nor does their literature highlight a vision of God on his glorious throne. What we see in the Qumran literature is not a unio mystica, but a unio angelica and perhaps a unio liturgica. He also recognizes that this is a communal experience, not an individual one.

As you may already know from my own work on mysticism, I have my differences from the "Schäferian" approach to the study of early Jewish mysticism, particularly its emphasis on the production of this literature out of an exegetical impulse mainly, at the expense of religious experience. And I'm not convinced that there is no evidence for the type of ascent mysticism that Schäfer argues is not present in Qumran literature. Regardless, my own approach is to consider the intersection of exegesis and experience, and to take very seriously the mystical tradition as a living practiced religious tradition. So the question that was foremost in my mind when I read this new article by Schäfer was: Are we beginning to see some consolidation in the field, some sense that we absolutely must explain the liturgical, magical-theurgical and ritual aspects of it, that perhaps there is an element of the "experiential" (=my word) within it?

So there is much good to say about Schäfer's article in my opinion, because it pushes, whether intentionally or unintentionally, in a couple of directions that I think are essential for the future of our study of early Jewish and Christian mysticism. I have written about this previously in Paradise Now, where can be found my own essay ("What is Early Jewish and Christian Mysticism?"), attempting to map this fledging field of study. The first "new" direction we must go is to recognize that mysticism to early Jews and Christians was not understood to have the characteristics of "Underhill" mysticism. The transformation usually was an angelification, not an assumption into God himself, as Schäfer notes about Qumran. Whether Schäfer thinks this a special type of mysticism or no mysticism at all was not clear to me, but I certainly define it it in terms of mysticism. As I have argued in Paradise Now, we need to define "mysticism" out of the literature rather than imposing a modern definition on the literature to see if "our" mysticism is there! If the transformation they were talking about is angelification and not union with God, then we need to acknowledge that. I did notice that Schäfer was still struggling with these old definitions of "mysticism" while also assuming them - the "Underhillian" emphasis on the "individual" and "union with God" in particular.

Second, there has been a tendency in this field of study toward perennialism and phenomenology. In other words, mystical themes like "vision of God," "ascent journey," "merkavah," etc. have been understood to represent a static concept of merkavah or hekhalot mysticism that had its origin in earlier Jewish literature or community. Christian varieties have been understood to have evolved out of this Jewish origin, but exactly how this happened has not been addressed. At any rate, there has been the tendency to see all instances of a certain theme across the literature as representative of some universal theme or practice that all groups are using the same way and inheriting from each other.

I have come to recognize over the last ten years that this paradigm is problematic, not the least of which because it is a linear model of evolution, when in fact we are dealing with a wide web or matrix of mystical views and practices, and a dynamism that is overwhelming. I think that the time is now to begin the complex process of mapping the emergence of mystical traditions within different communal settings - both in terms of belief and practice. I think that Peter Schäfer is doing this in this article, and I think that this is the type of study we need to be conducting in the future.

The members of the SBL section Early Jewish and Christian Mysticism already had a long discussion about this at our last meeting in Washington, D.C. To address it, members of the group decided to launch a new
multi-year project to determine possible provenances of early mysticism in Judaism and Christianity. We are operating in rough chronological order beginning with the Ancient Near East in San Diego, 2007. We decided on this new agenda when we met as a group last November, because we wish to create a forum to discuss how, why, and in what forms mysticism emerges at various times, locations, and communities prior to 500 CE. Papers from the sessions will be collected for inclusion in series of volumes called, After Paradise Now: Essays Exploring the Provenances of Mysticism in Early Judaism and Christianity.

In 2008, we will look for papers in Hebrew Bible and Enochic literature, so those of you who are interested in submitting a paper should contact Kevin Sullivan (ksulliva@iwu.edu) who is chairing the program unit.

San Diego SBL - Agenda for New Testament Mysticism Project Seminar

I have finally put together the next round of entry presentations for the SBL Seminar, the New Testament Mysticism Project.

Seminar members collectively are writing a commentary covering mysticism in the New Testament. The Seminar will progress systematically through each New Testament text, writing overviews of each text as well as commentaries on relevant pericopes.

Each entry will include the original language passage, a new translation, a line-by-line commentary, the reception history of the pericope through the Ante-Nicene period, literature parallels, and select bibliography.

Entries are discussed each year at the SBL meetings. Participants prepare commentary entries which are discussed in a round table format by members of the seminar. Entries are NOT READ as formal papers. Instead the time is used to introduce the entry by the author and discuss it in detail as a group. This is a working group, a collaborative project to write a commentary on New Testament mysticism.

After the meeting, the entries are revised by the author, and the collected and edited by April D. DeConick, Andrei Orlov and Kevin Sullivan into a three-volume commentary called New Testament Mysticism. Volume 1: The Synoptic Gospels, Luke-Acts, Johannine Literature, and the Catholic Epistles. Volume 2: The Pauline and Deutro-Pauline Epistles. Volume 3: Hebrews and Revelation.

Fall 2007, San Diego
Session One - The New Testament Mysticism Project
Mysticism in the New Testament Gospels
April Deconick, Rice University, Presiding
Andrei Orlov, Marquette University
John 1:45-51 and Matthew 4:1-11//Mark 1:12-13//Luke 4:1-13 (20 min)
Kevin Sullivan, Illinois Wesleyan University
John 6:35-65 and Matthew 16:17-23//Mark 8:27-33//Luke 9:18-22 (20 min)
Cameron Afzal, Sarah Lawrence College
John 9:5 and Matthew 7:21-23 (20 min)
Break (10 min)
Jeffrey B. Pettis, Fordham University
John 12.24 (20 min)
Catherine Playoust, independent
John 3:1-15 (20 min)
Robert G. Hall, Hampden-Sydney College
John 12:37-41 and Matthew 13.43 (20 min)
Jonathan A. Draper, University of KwaZulu-Natal
John 1:18 and Matthew 12:6 (20 min)
Discussion (30 min)
Session Two - The New Testament Mysticism Project
Mysticism in the New Testament Gospels
Andrei Orlov, Marquette University, Presiding
April D. Deconick, Rice University
John 20:24-29 and Matthew 22:23-33//Mark 12:18-27//Luke 20:27-38 (25 min)
Robin Griffith-Jones, Temple Church
John 20:11-18 (25 min)
Charles A. Gieschen, Concordia Theological Seminary - Fort Wayne
John 1:12, 5:37-38. 12:28, 17:6, 20:31 and Mt 28:19-20 and Mt 26:64//Mk 14:62//Lk 22:69-70 (25 min)
Break (10 min)
Jared Calaway, Columbia University in the City of New York
John 2:19-22 (25 min)
Jane D. Schaberg, University of Detroit Mercy
John 8:28 and 12:31-34 (25 min)
Alan Segal, Barnard College, Columbia University
John 14:16, 15:26, 16:7, 1 John 2:1 and Matthew 17:1-8//Mark 9:2-10//Luke 9:28-36 (25 min)
Discussion (20 min)